The Nature of Religion
Religion plays a complex role in the lives of two-thirds of Americans. Religious beliefs are often a source of comfort, community and moral guidance. They can even help improve health and life expectancy. Despite the power of religion, it is rarely considered in discussions about public policy, psychotherapy or education. This is a significant missed opportunity, since religion is the framework through which most people view their world.
There are a variety of theories on why people are religious. Some, such as Sigmund Freud, saw it as a way of coping with stress, anxiety and uncertainty. Others, such as Nigel Barber, argue that poverty breeds religion by fostering feelings of desperation and helplessness.
Other scholars have tried to systematically study the nature of religion and how it works in different cultures. However, this task is difficult. One issue is the sheer number of practices that have been described as religions. For example, the number of different ways to interpret the Bible is staggering. Even a small sample of religious texts reveals an incredible amount of diversity, so that it seems impossible to sort them into distinct groups by common properties.
To address this problem, some researchers have adopted a “functional” approach to the concept of religion. For example, Emile Durkheim defined religion as whatever system of practices unite a group of people into a single moral community (whether or not they involve belief in unusual realities). The idea behind this is that certain forms of life have a special kind of social function, and that it may be possible to find the functional definition of something by comparing it with other forms of life.
A further challenge is that there will almost certainly always be some places in the world where poverty will create religion. This is not just because poverty makes people feel desperate and hopeless, but also because it provides a false sense of need for religion. In many cases, this need is a result of biblical illiteracy: Surveys show that most churchgoers do not read the Bible and cannot tell you, for instance, whether Joan of Arc or Noah’s wife were women.
Religions are also important for their emphasis on collective action. They have played a major role in the development of hospitals, schools and other services for the poor. As a consequence, some studies have shown that religious believers are more likely to be involved in prosocial activities such as volunteering and caring for the elderly or disabled.
It remains to be seen whether or not these unique benefits of spirituality can outweigh the problems they cause. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that research suggests some personal spiritual practices—such as meditation, gratitude, compassion and forgiveness—can increase well-being. So even though there are difficulties with identifying and studying the phenomenon of Religion, it is probably worthwhile to continue to investigate how it operates in different cultures and how it affects people’s lives. The results of these efforts might be invaluable for understanding how to make religion a force for good in the modern world.