What Is Law?
Law is the study of the rules and regulations that govern the conduct of a society. These rules and regulations are enforced by social institutions such as governments and courts. It deals with issues such as criminal law, immigration, and consumer rights.
A lawyer is a professional who specializes in this field. Modern lawyers must have a degree of Bachelor of Laws (LLB) or a higher degree, such as a Master of Legal Studies or a Doctor of Juridical Science.
There are several legal systems that vary from country to country. Examples include the Common Law, Islamic Sharia, and Chinese law. Others include the US, Soviet, and Scandinavian legal systems.
There are two main types of legal system: common law and civil law. The former is a more general system of law that requires less detailed judicial decisions.
Common law systems have a doctrine of precedent, meaning that any decision made by a higher court binds all lower courts. In other words, the outcome of a case is dependent upon the courts’ interpretation of the law. Typically, these systems are based on a set of written statutes and decrees.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is one of the primary dispute settlement organs of the United Nations. Founded in 1946, it has issued numerous judgments and advisory opinions.
In most OECD countries, water and energy are regulated industries. This means that private companies doing jobs previously controlled by government have to meet varying levels of social responsibility. They can also create contracts that are legally binding.
Many laws deal with business agreements and property. Some of the most commonly encountered legal issues are immigration, debt, housing, and consumer rights. Various governmental websites provide information about these and other matters.
Another area of law is international law. Most of the major United Nations treaties and multilateral treaties cover human rights. Also, the Organization has a charter calling for the Organization to promote the progressive development of international law. Currently, the Secretary-General receives more than 500 multilateral treaties.
One of the most important problems in modern accountability is the policing power of the executive branch. Accountability has been especially problematic for military forces and modern policing.
Other legal systems include company law, which traces its roots to the medieval Lex Mercatoria. Personal property falls under the commercial law, which includes property law, trusts, and intellectual property.
In addition to law, there are other areas of interest such as criminal procedure and evidence. Evidence law involves the admissibility of materials in courts. Finally, there is legal philosophy. These topics address the role of law in social issues and the relationship between law and ideology.
Different universities offer a variety of law programs. Some focus on academic research while others prepare students for a career in law. Typical programs involve a combination of core courses, academic research, and specialized courses. Some schools allow students to work pro bono with real life clients.
Several factors distinguish law schools, such as the number of dual degree programs offered and the student to faculty ratio. Students can also expect to spend at least a year abroad.